Skip Nav

MLA In Text Citation & Parenthetical Guide

How to Cite

❶The footnote number will come directly after the period.

Admissions + Aid

Online Writing Lab
Essay Citations
Citing Sources

You can give credit to your sources within your text in two different ways: Your paper might say something like Notice that since I took a direct quote from John Smith's book, I placed those words in quotation marks. Notice also that I placed the date that the book was published directly after the author's name in parentheses--this is proper APA format. If I was using a particular website instead of John Smith's book , the signal phrase would look exactly the same, but I would say "According to Pocahontasrules.

Use an in-text citation in situations where you are not quoting someone directly, but rather using information from another source such as a fact, summary, or paraphrase to support your own ideas. She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style," but she did not offer an explanation Jones, , p. Notice that it's clear within this sentence that I'm referring to a certain person's beliefs, but since this person's name does not appear at the beginning of the sentence, I have placed her name, the year that her article was published, and the page number where I retrieved this information in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

Summarize an article or a larger section of an article whenever you simply want to present the author's general ideas in your essay. How to Write an Effective Summary: Cover up the original article, it is key that you not quote from the original work. Restate what you've read in your own words, and be sure to give the author credit using an in-text citation. Congressman Joe Smith believes that our approach to reforming the healthcare system is backwards and costly.

He discusses our rising national debt in "Healthcare: Let's Talk" and lists several statistics to prove that Obama's new plan will only make things worse. Summaries are most often used to condense larger texts into more manageable chucks. However, as a writer you should be aware that this more manageable chunks and easily become vague and weigh your paper down with fluff.

The original passage from The Confident Student 6th ed. No matter what condition your body is in, you can pretty much guarantee that poor health habits will lead to a lack of academic success. Students need to take time for their physical and emotional well-being, as well as their studies, during college Kanar No matter how old you are, your well-being and your health can impact your ability to do a good job at school. If you choose not to eat well, exercise, deal with stress, and avoid getting drunk, then your grades will go down Kanar Because the art of paraphrasing is more concise than summarizing, a true paraphrase shows that you as a researcher completely understand the source work.

If you need help incorporating your sources into your essay , the first thing you'll need to remember is that quotes cannot stand alone --they can't be placed in a sentence all by themselves. You need to make each quote a part of your essay by introducing it beforehand and commenting on it afterward.

Think of each quote like a sandwich—the quote is the meat on the inside, but before you taste the meat, you must also be introduced to the sandwich by the bread. Retrieved from URL [15] The citation looks like this one: Cherry Pie for Beginners. The Chicago Manual of Style mandates the use of footnotes when citing sources in the text. You'll have an entry for your source on the footnote and another entry in the bibliography. The footnote number will come directly after the period.

Follow the footnote format for a website. Cite your website in a footnote as follows: The DOI is the digital object identifier. It is a unique number assigned to online articles, so people can find them, much like an ISBN number. However, it's usually only assigned to academic articles. You can search for an article's DOI on Crossref. Cite the website in your bibliography. Complete the entry in the bibliography for the website.

It is essentially the same information as the main entry, but you change some of the commas to periods and reverse the author's name. For example, it looks like the following citation: Alphabetize the reference list. Use the first word in each citation to put the list in alphabetical order. Even if you only use one quote from a website, you should still cite it completely, using in-text citation where the quote is used and a full citation for that website on your works cited page.

Not Helpful 2 Helpful How do I cite a web page that is just one page on a website? Answer this question Flag as How to cite CDC website when there is no author? How do I do in text citation in MLA format when quoting directly from a website? How do I cite a website in MLA if there is no author? Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Already answered Not a question Bad question Other.

Did this summary help you? Tips Though this article only covers basic citations, if you're using an online academic database, you should note the database and the DOI number for the article in your citation notes for later. If the website you are citing is a dictionary there may be some additional citation rules to consider. Citation In other languages: Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 2,, times.

Did this article help you? Cookies make wikiHow better. By continuing to use our site, you agree to our cookie policy. A Anonymous Apr Notice, that when there are two authors, both of their surnames are mentioned. When there are more than two authors, they are referenced as such: Smith, Jones, et al, Reference pages by number only.

Although a quote from an expert can add impact to your essay, in most cases you should try to either paraphrase or summarize the information, using citation to reference your source.

However, when you do use direct quotations, follow these rules: Insert the quotation exactly as it was written, errors and all. Directly after a spelling error in a quote insert the word [sic]. If you make a change in the quotation, such as an underline or bold text in part of the quotation, note it in parentheses after the quotation.

Use parenthesis for information that you add after a quote and square brackets [ ] for information you add within the quotation.

Usually, when you use a quotation, it's appropriate to cite the author's name within the text.

General Format

Main Topics

Privacy Policy

There are a number of sources written or created by three or more authors. Many research studies and reports, scholarly journal articles, and government publications are developed by three or more individuals. If the source you’re attempting to cite does not have an author’s name listed, the in-text citation MLA or MLA parenthetical.

Privacy FAQs

Citing sources when you are writing an essay can seem complicated at first, but if you follow the rules it gets easier. The importance of using sources correctly when writing an essay cannot be overstated.

About Our Ads

The MLA system is an in-text method of citing sources and includes just enough information to help your reader find the information in the works cited page. Although a quote from an expert can add impact to your essay, in most cases you should try to either paraphrase or summarize the information, using citation to reference your source. Whether you refer to an essay from a nonfiction author in your literary paper or a work from a political figure in your history essay, you need to include citations that lead your readers to the source material.

Cookie Info

For example, when you cite sources in a psychology paper you would probably use a different form of citation than you might in a paper for an English class. In an essay presented at an Asian Studies conference held at Duke University, Sheldon Geron analyzes the relation of state, labor-unions, and small businesses in Japan between s and. Summarizing Sources. Summarize an article or a larger section of an article whenever you simply want to present the author's general ideas in your essay.