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Online Library of Liberty

by Lois Lowry

❶But, because two is always better than one, she won a second Newbery for The Giver. If afflicted the individual may have to struggle with the issue of being a Good Girl or a Good Boy.

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In a Nutshell
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INTRODUCTION

This book The Giver is about a community that is prefect and about a boy who is different than the others. As he gets older he turns twelve. He starts asking a lot of questions. He is chosen the Can you imagine a world without pain, warfare, poverty, hunger, or terror?

Sounds pretty good so far, right? Now, take away feelings, love, diversity, choices, and even the ability to see colours. The community in the Giver is more successful than our own society.

One reason why the community is more successful than our own society is 0because of the fact that there is no pain or feelings. William Saroyan once said, "Good people I agree with this critical lens. Two works of liter A Review and Plot Summary. The Giver Characters- Jonas -Jonas is the main character in the story. Jonas lives in a community where there is no harm that can be done. Jonas is always concerned about other people; he is an all The Role of The Community. In The Giver, Lois Lowry creates a community where everything is perfect.

Lives are pre-planned by the Committee of Elders so that the structure within the Community will never rest on narrow should The Launguage of the The Giver. People today would not say "I left my comfort object at home" it would seem strange and not even the most proper societies say words like that. Also when a child is about to be born people don't say " The Giver, a Theme Analysis.

Throughout human history, people have tried to make a perfect world, free of pain and suffering. But to make such a world you take away the true pains and pleasures of life. I believe that Lois Lowry, The Giver, A Summary and Discussion. Imagine a world without pain, warfare, poverty, hunger, or terror. In Lois Lowry's The Giver this is how the world is.

Everything in this world is perfect and proper. The society leaders assign the ru The Giver, a Review and Theme Analysis. Everyday we are faced with choices. What to wear, what to eat, and what exactly to do that day. A lot of people take for granted the right of choice.

What would happen if we did not have choices, what This refinement changes according to the ever-changing tastes of different ages. Thus some twenty or thirty years ago ceremonies in social intercourse were still the fashion. Fourthly, moral training must form a part of education. It is not enough that a man shall be fitted for any end, but his disposition must be so trained that he shall choose none but good ends—good ends being those which are necessarily approved by everyone, and which may at the same time be the aim of everyone.

Man may be either broken in, trained, and mechanically taught, or he may be really enlightened. Horses and dogs are broken in; and man, too, may be broken in. It is, however, not enough that children should be merely broken in; for it is of greater importance that they shall learn to think.

By learning to think, man comes to act according to fixed principles and not at random. Thus we see that a real education implies a great deal. But as a rule, in our private education the fourth and most important point is still too much neglected, children being for the most part educated in such a way that moral training is left to the Church. And yet how important it is that children should learn from their youth up to detest vice;—not merely on the ground that God has forbidden it, but because vice is detestable Edition: If children do not learn this early, they are very likely to think that, if only God had not forbidden it, there would be no harm in practising wickedness, and that it would otherwise be allowed, and that therefore He would probably make an exception now and then.

But God is the most holy being, and wills only what is good, and desires that we may love virtue for its own sake, and not merely because He requires it. We live in an age of discipline, culture, and refinement, but we are still a long way off from the age of moral training. According to the present conditions of mankind, one might say that the prosperity of the state grows side by side with the misery of the people.

Indeed, it is still a question whether we should not be happier in an uncivilised condition, where all the culture of the present time would find no place, than we are in the present state of society; for how can man be made happy, unless he is first made wise and good? And until this is made our first aim the amount of evil will not be lessened.

Experimental schools must first be established before we can establish normal schools. In Austria the greater number of schools used to be normal schools, and these were founded and carried on after a fixed plan, against which much has been said, not without reason.

The chief complaint against them was this, that the teaching in them was merely mechanical. But all other schools were obliged to form themselves after the pattern of these normal schools, because government even refused to promote persons who had not been educated in these schools. This is an example of how government might interfere in the education of subjects, and how much evil might arise from compulsion. People imagine, indeed, that experiments in education are unnecessary, and that we can judge from our reason whether anything is good or not.

This is a great mistake, and experience teaches us that the results of an experiment are often entirely different from what we expected. Thus we see that, since we must be guided Edition: The only experimental school which had in a measure made a beginning to clear the way was the Dessau Institute. This must be said in its praise, in spite of the many mistakes with which we might reproach it—mistakes which attend all conclusions made from experiments—namely, that still more experiments are required.

This school was in a certain way the only one in which the teachers were free to work out their own methods and plans, and in which the teachers were in communication with each other and with all the learned men of Germany. Education includes the nurture of the child and, as it grows, its culture. The latter is firstly negative, consisting of discipline; that is, merely the correcting of faults.

Secondly, culture is positive, consisting of instruction and guidance and thus forming part of education. Guidance means directing the pupil in putting into practice what he has been taught.

Hence the difference between a private teacher who merely instructs, and a tutor or governor who Edition: The one trains for school only, the other for life. Education is either private or public.

The latter is concerned only with instruction, and this can always remain public. The carrying out of what is taught is left to private education. A complete public education is one which unites instruction and moral culture. Its aim is to promote a good private education. A school which does this is called an educational institute. There cannot be many such institutions, and the number of children in them can be but small, since the fees must of necessity be high, for the institutions require elaborate management, which entails a good deal of expense.

It is the same as with almshouses and hospitals. The buildings required for them, and the salaries of directors, overseers, and servants, take away at once half of the funds, so that there can be no doubt that the poor would be better provided for, if all that money were sent direct to their houses. For this reason it is also difficult to provide that any but the children of rich people should share in these institutions.

The object of such public institutions as these is the improvement of home education. The purpose of these institutions is to make experiments, and to educate individuals, so that in time a good private education may arise out of these public institutions. Home education is carried on either by the parents themselves, or, should the parents not have the time, aptitude, or inclination for it, by others who are paid to assist them in it.

But in education which is carried on by these assistants one very great difficulty arises—namely, the division of authority between parent and teacher. The only way out of this difficulty is for the parents to surrender the whole of their authority to the tutor.

Regarded not only from the point of view of developing ability, but also as a preparation for the duties of a citizen, it must, I am inclined to think, be allowed that, on the whole, public Edition: Home education frequently not only fosters family failings, but tends to continue these failings in the new generation.

How long, then, should education last? Till the youth has reached that period of his life when nature has ordained that he shall be capable of guiding his own conduct; when the instinct of sex has developed in him, and he can become a father himself, and have to educate his own children. This period is generally reached about the sixteenth year. After this we may still make use of some means of culture, and secretly exercise some discipline; but of education in the ordinary sense of the word we shall have no further need.

In the first period of childhood the child must learn submission and positive 1 obedience. In the next stage he should be allowed to think for himself, and to enjoy a certain amount of freedom, although still obliged to follow certain rules.

In the first period there is a mechanical, in the second a moral constraint. Positive in that he is obliged to do Edition: He is in this case, though capable of thinking for himself, dependent on others with regard to his own pleasure. How am I to develop the sense of freedom in spite of the restraint? I am to accustom my pupil to endure a restraint of his freedom, and at the same time I am to guide him to use his freedom aright.

Without this all education is merely mechanical, and the child, when his education is over, will never be able to make a proper use of his freedom. He should be made to feel early the inevitable Edition: Here we must observe the following: First, we must allow the child from his earliest childhood perfect liberty in every respect except on those occasions when he might hurt himself—as, for instance, when he clutches at a knife , provided that in acting so he does not interfere with the liberty of others.

For instance, as soon as he screams or is too boisterously happy, he annoys others. Secondly, he must be shown that he can only attain his own ends by allowing others to attain theirs. For instance, should he be disobedient, or refuse to learn his lessons, he ought to be refused any treat he may have been looking forward to.

Thirdly, we must prove to him that restraint is only laid upon him that he may learn in time to use his liberty aright, and that his mind is being cultivated so that one day he may be free; that is, independent of the help of others. This is the last thing a child will come to understand.

It is much later in life that Edition: Indeed, unless children, and especially the children of rich parents and princes, are made to realise this, they are like the inhabitants of Otaheiti, who remain children all their lives.

Again, we see the advantage of public education in that under such a system, we learn to measure our powers with those of others, and to know the limits imposed upon us by the rights of others. Thus we can have no preference shown us, because we meet with opposition everywhere, and we can only make our mark and obtain an advantage over others by real merit.

Public education is the best school for future citizens. There is yet another difficulty to be mentioned here—that is, the difficulty of anticipating the knowledge of sexual matters in such a manner as to prevent vice at the very outset of manhood.

This, however, will be discussed later on. This is the education of a personal character, of a free being, who is able to maintain himself, and to take his proper place in society, keeping at the same time a proper sense of his own individuality. Men need the training of school-teaching or instruction to develop the ability necessary to success in the various vocations of life.

School-teaching bestows upon each member an individual value of his own. Next, by learning the lesson of discretion in the practical matters of life, he is educated as a citizen, and becomes of value to his fellow-citizens, learning both how to accommodate himself to their society and also how to profit by it.

Lastly, moral training imparts to man a value with regard to the whole human race. Discretion is the faculty of using our abilities aright. Moral training, in as far as it is based upon fundamental principles which a man must himself comprehend, comes last in order of time. In so far, however, as it is based on common sense merely, it must be taken into account from the beginning, at the same time with physical training; for if moral training be omitted, many faults will take root in the child, against which all influences of education at a later stage will be powerless.

As to ability and the general knowledge of life, everything must Edition: Let a child be clever after the manner of children; let him be shrewd and good-natured in a childish way, but not cunning listig like a man. The latter is as unsuitable for a child as a childish mind is for a grown-up person.

Though the tutor may only have to do with older children, it may happen that others may be born in the house, and if he conducts himself wisely he will always have a claim to become the confidant of the parents, and to be consulted about the physical training of the little ones; the more so as often the tutor is the only well-educated person in the house.

He should therefore have previously made himself acquainted with the subject of the physical education of children. Physical training, properly speaking, Edition: It was formerly believed that the first milk given by the mother after the birth of the infant, which resembles whey, is unwholesome, and must first be removed before the child is nursed.

Rousseau, however, called the attention of physicians to this point, to ascertain whether this first milk might not be useful to the child, since Nature has made nothing in vain, and it was actually found that the refuse which is always met with in a new-born child, which is known among doctors as meconium, is best removed by this milk, which is therefore useful and not harmful to the child.

The question has been asked whether an infant might not be as well brought up on the milk of animals; but human milk is very different in substance from the milk of animals. The milk of all those animals which live on grass and vegetables very soon curdles, if anything sour is added to it—tartaric acid, for instance, citric acid, or especially the acid of rennet. Human milk, on the other hand, does not curdle.

From this it has been concluded that it is best and most healthy for the mother or nurse to eat meat during the nursing period. When children throw up the milk, it is found to be curdled. How much worse would it be if milk were given to the child which curdled of itself! We see, however, from the customs of other nations with regard to the bringing up Edition: There is a certain tribe of Russians in Asia who eat scarcely anything but meat, and are a strong and healthy people.

They are not, however, very long lived, and are of such a slight build that a full-grown youth, whom one would hardly expect to be so light, can be carried as easily as a child. On the other hand Swedes, and more particularly Indian nations, eat scarcely any meat, and yet their men are tall and well-formed. It seems, then, from these cases that all depends on the good health of the nurse, and that the best diet for mother or nurse is that which best agrees with her.

For some time past all sorts of farinaceous foods have been tried, but such food is not good for the child from the beginning. It is a singular fact, however, that children have such a strong craving for things of this sort; this is because they act as a stimulant, and arouse their as yet Edition: In Russia, it is true, children are given brandy to drink by their parents, who are great brandy-drinkers themselves, and it has been noticed that the Russians are a strong and healthy people.

Certainly the fact of their being able to stand such a habit proves that they must have a good constitution: For such early stimulus to the nerves is the cause of many disorders. Children should be carefully kept even from too warm foods and drinks, as they are very apt to weaken the constitution. Further we should notice that children need not be very warmly clad, for their blood is already naturally warmer than that of the full-grown.

A child would be stifled in the same degree of warmth which his elders would enjoy. It is not good even for grown-up people to dress too warmly, to cover themselves up, and to accustom themselves to too warm drinks, for cool habits above all make people strong. Therefore it is good for a child to have Edition: Cold baths also are good.

However, the child must not be allowed so to accustom himself to anything as to feel the loss of it. It is better not to encourage artificially the formation of habits either good or bad. Among savage nations the custom of swathing infants is never observed.

Savage nations in America, for instance, make holes in the earth, and strew them with dust from rotting trees, which serves to keep the children to a certain extent clean and dry. In these holes the children lie, covered with leaves, having except for this covering, the free use of their limbs. It is simply for the sake of our own convenience that we swathe our children like mummies, so that we may not have the trouble of watching them in order to prevent their limbs from getting broken or bent.

And yet it often happens that they do get bent, just by swathing them. Also it makes the children themselves uneasy, and they are almost driven to despair on account of their never being able to use their limbs.

And then people imagine that Edition: But suppose a grown man were to be subjected to the same treatment, and we shall soon see whether he, too, would not cry and fall into uneasiness and despair.

In general we must bear in mind that early education is only negative—that is, we have not to add anything to the provision of Nature, but merely to see that such provision is duly carried out. If any addition to this is necessary on our part, it must be the process of hardening the child. For this reason, also, we must give up the habit of swathing our children. If, however, we want to use some kind of caution, the most suitable arrangement would be a kind of box covered with leather straps, such as the Italians use and call arcuccio.

The child is never taken out of this box, even when nursed by its mother. This protects the child from the chance of being smothered when sleeping with its mother at night, while with us many children lose their lives in this way. This arrangement is better than swathing the child, since it allows greater freedom for the limbs, while at the same time it serves as a protection against anything that might hurt or bend its body.

Another custom belonging to early education is the rocking of babies. The easiest way of doing this is the way some peasants do it. The cradle is hung by a cord to the rafter, and, when the cord is pulled, the cradle rocks of itself from side to side. Rocking, however, is altogether objectionable, for the swinging backwards and forwards is bad for the child.

We see this among grown people, in whom swinging often produces a feeling of sickness and giddiness. By swinging, nurses want to stun the child, so that he should not cry. But crying is a wholesome thing for a child, for when a child is born and draws its first breath the course of the blood in its veins is altered, which causes a painful sensation; the child immediately cries, and the energy expended in crying develops and strengthens the various organs of its body.

Children are usually taught to walk by Edition: Besides, leading-strings are especially bad for the child. A writer once remarked that he had no doubt that the asthma from which he suffered was due to the use of leading-strings when he was a child, which he thought had narrowed his chest.

For since a child takes hold of everything or picks up everything from the floor, his chest is confined by the leading-strings; and since the chest is still undeveloped, any pressure tends to flatten it, and the form it then takes is retained in after-life. Besides this, children do not learn to walk so surely as when they walk by themselves. The best plan is to let children crawl, until by degrees they learn of themselves to walk.

To prevent them from hurting themselves with splinters from the floor, a woollen rug might be laid down, which would serve at the same time to break their fall. It is commonly said that children fall very heavily; they do not, however; and it does Edition: They learn all the sooner to find their balance, and to fall without hurting themselves.

But it is a merely negative education which consists in employing artificial instruments, instead of teaching the child to use those with which Nature has already provided him. The more artificial instruments we use, the more do we become dependent on instruments. Generally speaking, it would be better if fewer instruments were used, and children were allowed to learn more things by themselves. They would then learn them more thoroughly.

For example, it is quite possible that a child might learn to write by itself; for some one must at one time have discovered this for himself, and the discovery is not such a very difficult one. For instance, if a child asked one for bread, one might ask him to draw a picture of what he wanted—he might then, perhaps, draw a rough oval; on being asked to describe Edition: The child might invent his own alphabet in this way, which he would afterwards only have to exchange for other signs.

There are some children who come into the world with certain defects. Are there no means of remedying these defects? It has been decided, according to the opinion of many learned writers, that stays are of no use in such cases, but rather tend to aggravate the mischief by hindering the circulation of the blood and humours, and the healthy expansion of both the outer and inner parts of the body.

If the child is left free he will exercise his body, and a man who has worn stays is weaker on leaving them off than a man who has never put them on. Perhaps some good might be done for those who are born crooked by more weight being put upon the side where the muscles are stronger. This, however, is a dangerous practice, too, for who is to decide what is the right balance? It seems best that the child should learn to use his limbs, and remedy this defect by keeping Edition: All these artificial contrivances are the more hurtful in that they run counter to the aim of Nature in making organised and reasonable beings; for Nature requires them to keep their freedom, in order that they may learn how to use their powers.

All that education can do in this matter is to prevent children from becoming effeminate. This might be done by accustoming them to habits of hardiness, which is the opposite of effeminacy. It is venturing too much to want to accustom children to everything.

Russians have made the mistake of going too far in this direction, and consequently an enormous number of their children die young, from the over-hardening process. Habit is the result of the constant repetition of any one enjoyment or action, until such enjoyment or action becomes a necessity of our nature. There is nothing to which children become more easily accustomed, and which should be more carefully kept from them, than such highly stimulating things as tobacco, brandy, and warm drinks.

Once acquired, it is very difficult to Edition: The more habits a man allows himself to form, the less free and independent he becomes; for it is the same with man as with all other animals; whatever he has been accustomed to early in life always retains a certain attraction for him in after life.

Children, therefore, must be prevented from forming any habits, nor should habits be fostered in them. Many parents want to get their children used to anything and everything. But this is no good. For human nature in general, as well as the nature of certain individuals in particular, will not allow of such training, and consequently many children remain apprentices all their lives. Some parents, for instance, would have their children go to sleep, get up, and have their meals whenever they please; but in order that they may do this with impunity, they must follow a special diet, a diet which will strengthen the body, and repair the evil which this irregularity causes.

We find, indeed, many instances of periodicity in Nature also. As to the other matter, that children ought to eat at any hour, we cannot well adduce here the case of the animal as an example; as, for instance, all grass-eating animals get but little nourishment each time they eat, therefore grazing is necessarily a constant occupation with them.

It is, however, very important for man always to eat at regular hours. Many parents try to accustom their children to endure great cold, bad smells, and noises; this, however, is quite unnecessary, the only thing needful being to prevent them from forming habits. And for this it is best that they shall not always be subject to the same conditions.

A hard bed is much more healthy than a soft one; and, generally speaking, a severe education is very helpful in strengthening the body. Remarkable examples in confirmation of this assertion are not lacking, only they are not observed, or, to speak more correctly, people will not observe them. With regard to the training of character—which we may indeed call also, in a certain sense, physical culture—we must chiefly bear in mind that discipline should not be slavish. For a child ought always to be conscious of his freedom, but always in such a way as not to interfere with the liberty of others—in which case he must be met with opposition.

Many parents refuse their children everything they ask, in order that they may exercise their patience, but in doing so they require from their children more patience than they have themselves. By this the child will also become accustomed to being open-minded; and since he does not annoy anyone by his crying, everybody will be friendly towards him. Providence seems indeed to have given Edition: Nothing does children more harm than to exercise a vexatious and slavish discipline over them with a view to breaking their self-will.

It experiences, it is true, the sensation of light, but cannot as yet distinguish one object from another. At the same time as the sense of sight, the power of laughing and crying is developed. When the child has once reached that stage, there is always some reasoning, however vague it may be, connected with his crying. He cries with the idea that some harm has been done him. Rousseau says that if you merely tap a child of six months on the hand, it will scream as if a bit of burning wood had touched it.

Here the child has actually a sense of grievance besides the mere bodily hurt. Parents talk a great deal Edition: The spoiling begins when a child has but to cry to get his own way. It is very difficult to repair this evil later on; indeed, it can scarcely be done.

We may keep the child from crying or otherwise worrying us, but he swallows his vexation, and is inwardly nursing anger all the more. How children are made dissemblers In this way the child becomes accustomed to dissembling and agitation of mind. It is, for instance, very strange that parents should expect their children to turn and kiss their hand vide p.

That is the way to teach them dissembling and falsehood. For the child surely does not look on the rod with any special favour, so that he should feel any gratitude for its chastisement, and one can easily imagine with what feelings the child kisses the hand which has punished him. We often say to a child: But such expressions are futile in this early stage of education; for the child has, as yet, no sense of shame or of seemliness.

He has nothing to be ashamed of, and ought not to be ashamed. He will become embarrassed before others, and inclined to keep away from their company—and from this arises reserve and harmful concealment. He is afraid to ask for anything, when he ought to ask for all he wants. He conceals his true character, and always appears to be other than he is, when he ought to be able to speak frankly and freely.

Instead of being always near his parents he shuns them, preferring to make friends with the servants of the house. No better than this vexatious system of bringing up children is that of perpetually playing with and caressing the child; this makes him self-willed and deceitful, and by betraying to him their weakness, parents lose the necessary respect in the eyes of the child. If, on the other hand, he is so trained that he gets nothing by crying for it, he will be frank without being bold, and modest without being timid.

Boldness, or, what is almost the same thing, insolence, is insufferable. There are many men whose constant insolence has given them such an expression that their very look leads one to expect rudeness from them, while you have Edition: Now we can always be frank in our demeanour, provided our frankness be united with a certain kindness. People often speak of men of rank having a royal air, but this is nothing but a certain self-sufficient manner in consequence of having met with no opposition all their life.

It may be said with truth that the children of the working classes are more spoilt than the children of those of higher rank, for the working classes play with their children like monkeys, singing to them, caressing, kissing, and dancing with them. Once a child has become accustomed to having all his whims gratified, it is afterwards too late to begin to cross his will. But should his fancies always be gratified, both his character and his manners will be spoilt.

The child has as yet, indeed, no idea of manners, but it goes far towards spoiling his natural disposition, so that afterwards sharp measures are necessary to undo the evil caused by early indulgence. This is but what we must expect, for children who have been for so long accustomed merely to cry to get what they want, become veritable despots, and are naturally aggrieved when their rule comes suddenly to an end; for even grown-up people who have been for some time in a high position find it very difficult if they are suddenly called upon to abdicate.

Here we have also to discuss the training of the sense of pleasure or pain. Love of ease does more harm than all Edition: We must guard against over-indulgence, dislike of work, and daintiness Therefore it is of the utmost importance that children should be taught early to work. If they have not been over-indulged, children are naturally fond of amusements which are attended with fatigue, and occupations which require exercise of strength.

With regard to pleasures, it is best not to let them be dainty, nor to allow them to pick and choose. As a rule, mothers spoil their children in this way and indulge them altogether too much. In spite of this we very often notice that children, and especially boys, are fonder of their father than of their mother.

This is probably because mothers are timid, and do not allow them to use their limbs as freely as they would wish, for fear of the children hurting themselves.

While fathers, on the other hand, although they are stern to them, and perhaps punish them severely when they are naughty, yet take them out sometimes into the fields and do not try to hinder their boyish games.

Some people believe that in making children wait a long time for what they want they teach them patience. Patience is two-fold, Edition: The first is not necessary, provided what we hope to gain is possible; the second we should always desire, as long as what we strive for is right.

In cases of illness, however, hopelessness spoils what has been made good by cheerfulness. But he who is still capable of taking courage with regard to his physical or moral condition is not likely to give up all hope. The will of children, as has been already remarked, must not be broken, but merely bent in such a way that it may yield to natural Edition: At the beginning, it is true, the child must obey blindly.

It is unnatural that a child should command by his crying, and that the strong should obey the weak. Children should never, even in their earliest childhood, be humoured because they cry, nor allowed to extort anything by crying. Parents often make a mistake in this, and then, wishing to undo the result of their over-indulgence, they deny their children in later life whatever they ask for.

It is, however, very wrong to refuse them without cause what they may naturally expect from the kindness of their parents, merely for the sake of opposing them, and that they, being the weaker, should be made to feel the superior power of their parents. To grant children their wishes is to spoil them; to thwart them purposely is an utterly wrong way of bringing them up.

The former generally happens as long as they are the playthings of their parents, and especially during the time when they are beginning to talk. By spoiling a child, however, very great harm is done, affecting its whole life.

Those who thwart the wishes of children prevent them and must necessarily prevent them at the same time from Edition: The following rules should accordingly be observed with children from their earliest days: On the other hand, when they cry simply from temper, they should be left alone. And this way of dealing with them should be continued as they grow older.

In this case the opposition the child meets with is quite natural, and, properly speaking, merely negative, consisting simply in his not being indulged. Many children, on the other hand, get all they want from their parents by persistent asking.

If children are allowed to get whatever they want by crying, they become ill-tempered; while if they are allowed to get whatever they want by asking, their characters are weakened. A refusal should always be final. Supposing—what is of extremely rare occurrence—that a child should be naturally inclined to be stubborn, it is best to deal with him in this way: All this we may consider as negative training, for many weaknesses of mankind proceed not so much from lack of teaching as from false impressions.

Many children retain this fear all their lives, and in this matter always remain childish; for spiders, though dangerous to flies, for whom their bite is poisonous, are harmless to men. In the same way the toad is as harmless as the beautiful green frog or any other animal. The positive part of physical education is culture.

It is this which distinguishes man from the animals. Culture consists chiefly in the exercise of the mental faculties. Parents, then, should give their children opportunities for such exercise. The first and most important rule is that all artificial aids should, as far as possible, be dispensed with. Thus in early childhood leading-strings and go-carts should be discarded, and the child allowed to crawl about on the ground till he learns to go by himself—he will then walk more steadily.

For the use of tools is the ruin of natural quickness. Thus we want a cord to measure a certain distance, though we might as well measure it by the eye; or a clock to tell the time, when we might do this by the position of the sun; or a compass to find our way in a forest, when we might Edition: Indeed, we might even say that instead of needing a boat we might swim across the water. He also suggested an easy way by which to teach oneself to swim: In bending forward to do this you will be carried off your feet, and, in order to prevent the water getting into your mouth, you will throw your head back.

You are now in the proper position for swimming, and have only to strike out with the arms to find yourself actually swimming. What has to be done is to see that natural ability is cultivated. What should be observed in physical education, with respect to the training of the body, relates either to the use of voluntary movements or to the organs of sense. If a man cannot do this, he is not entirely what he might be.

Since the Philanthropinon 1 of Dessau set the example, many attempts of this kind have been made with children in other institutions. It is wonderful to read how the Swiss accustom themselves from early childhood to climb mountains, how readily they venture along the narrowest paths with perfect confidence, and leap over chasms, having first measured the distance with the eye, lest it should prove to be beyond their powers.

Most people, however, fear some imaginary danger of falling, and this fear actually paralyses their limbs, so that for them such a proceeding would be really fraught with danger. This fear generally grows with age, and is chiefly found Edition: For children to make such attempts is not really very dangerous; they are much lighter in proportion to their strength than grown-up people, and for this reason do not fall so heavily.

Besides this, their bones are not so inflexible and brittle as they become with age. Children often put their strength to the proof of their own accord. We often see them climbing, for instance, for no particular reason. Running is a healthy exercise and strengthens the body. Jumping, lifting weights, carrying, slinging, throwing towards a mark, wrestling, running races, and all such exercises are good. Dancing, so far as it is of an elaborate kind, is not so well suited to actual childhood.

Exercises in throwing, whether it be throwing a distance or hitting a mark, have the additional advantage of exercising the senses, especially the eyesight. Games with balls are among the best for children, as they necessitate healthy running.

Generally speaking, those games are the best which unite the development of skill with the exercise of the senses—for example, those that exercise the eyesight in correctly judging distance, Edition: All these are good training. Of great advantage also is local imagination, by which we mean the capability 1 of recalling the exact position of places where we have seen certain things—as, for example, when we are able to find our way out of a forest by having noticed the trees we have passed.

In the same way the memoria localis, 2 by which we recall, not only in what book we have read a certain thing, but in what part of the book. It is very useful also to cultivate the ear of children, so that they may know whether a sound comes from far or near, from this side or that. Spinning tops is a singular game. Such games as these furnish matter for further reflection to grown-up men, and occasionally lead even to important discoveries.

Thus Segner has written a treatise on the top; and the top has furnished an English sea-captain with material for inventing a mirror, by means of which the height of the stars may be measured from a ship.

One of the most important themes in The Giver is the significance of memory to human life. Lowry was inspired to write The Giver after a visit to her aging father, who had lost most of his long-term memory.

She realized that without memory, there is no pain—if you cannot remember physical pain, you might as well not have experienced it, and you cannot be plagued by regret or grief if you cannot remember the events that hurt you. At some point in the past the community in The Giver decided to eliminate all pain from their lives. Not only did this allow them to forget all of the pain that had been suffered throughout human history, it also prevented members of the society from wanting to engage in activities and relationships that could result in conflict and suffering, and eliminated any nostalgia for the things the community gave up in order to live in total peace and harmony.

According to the novel, however, memory is essential. The Committee of Elders does recognize the practical applications of memory—if you do not remember your errors, you may repeat them—so it designates a Receiver to remember history for the community.

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