Be careful to consider all of these rather than simply pushing your favorite one. If you can eliminate all but one, that is great, but often that is not possible with the data in hand. In that case you should give even treatment to the remaining possibilities, and try to indicate ways in which future work may lead to their discrimination. A special case of the above. Avoid jumping a currently fashionable point of view unless your results really do strongly support them.
What are the things we now know or understand that we didn't know or understand before the present work? Include the evidence or line of reasoning supporting each interpretation. What is the significance of the present results: This section should be rich in references to similar work and background needed to interpret results. Is there material that does not contribute to one of the elements listed above?
If so, this may be material that you will want to consider deleting or moving. Break up the section into logical segments by using subheads. Conclusions What is the strongest and most important statement that you can make from your observations? If you met the reader at a meeting six months from now, what do you want them to remember about your paper? Refer back to problem posed, and describe the conclusions that you reached from carrying out this investigation, summarize new observations, new interpretations, and new insights that have resulted from the present work.
Include the broader implications of your results. Do not repeat word for word the abstract, introduction or discussion.
Recommendations Include when appropriate most of the time Remedial action to solve the problem. Further research to fill in gaps in our understanding. Directions for future investigations on this or related topics. Simpson and Hays cite more than double-author references by the surname of the first author followed by et al. Pfirman, Simpson and Hays would be: Nature , , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commonly asked questions about ozone. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, pp.
Child Review of ciliary structure and function. Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa , Vol. Hutner, editor , Academic Press, New York, Bonani A high altitude continental paleotemperature record derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater from the San Juan Basin, New Mexico.
Tables where more than pages. Calculations where more than pages. You may include a key article as appendix. If you consulted a large number of references but did not cite all of them, you might want to include a list of additional resource material, etc. List of equipment used for an experiment or details of complicated procedures.
Figures and tables, including captions, should be embedded in the text and not in an appendix, unless they are more than pages and are not critical to your argument. Order of Writing Your thesis is not written in the same order as it is presented in. The following gives you one idea how to proceed. Here is another approach. Write up a preliminary version of the background section first. This will serve as the basis for the introduction in your final paper. As you collect data, write up the methods section.
It is much easier to do this right after you have collected the data. Be sure to include a description of the research equipment and relevant calibration plots. When you have some data, start making plots and tables of the data.
These will help you to visualize the data and to see gaps in your data collection. If time permits, you should go back and fill in the gaps. You are finished when you have a set of plots that show a definite trend or lack of a trend. Be sure to make adequate statistical tests of your results. Once you have a complete set of plots and statistical tests, arrange the plots and tables in a logical order.
Write figure captions for the plots and tables. As much as possible, the captions should stand alone in explaining the plots and tables. Many scientists read only the abstract, figures, figure captions, tables, table captions, and conclusions of a paper.
Be sure that your figures, tables and captions are well labeled and well documented. Once your plots and tables are complete, write the results section. Writing this section requires extreme discipline. You must describe your results, but you must NOT interpret them. If good ideas occur to you at this time, save them at the bottom of the page for the discussion section.
Be factual and orderly in this section, but try not to be too dry. Once you have written the results section, you can move on to the discussion section. This is usually fun to write, because now you can talk about your ideas about the data. Many papers are cited in the literature because they have a good cartoon that subsequent authors would like to use or modify. In writing the discussion session, be sure to adequately discuss the work of other authors who collected data on the same or related scientific questions.
Be sure to discuss how their work is relevant to your work. If there were flaws in their methodology, this is the place to discuss it. After you have discussed the data, you can write the conclusions section.
In this section, you take the ideas that were mentioned in the discussion section and try to come to some closure. If some hypothesis can be ruled out as a result of your work, say so. If more work is needed for a definitive answer, say that. The final section in the paper is a recommendation section. This is really the end of the conclusion section in a scientific paper. Make recommendations for further research or policy actions in this section. If you can make predictions about what will be found if X is true, then do so.
You will get credit from later researchers for this. After you have finished the recommendation section, look back at your original introduction.
Your introduction should set the stage for the conclusions of the paper by laying out the ideas that you will test in the paper. Now that you know where the paper is leading, you will probably need to rewrite the introduction.
You must write your abstract last. All figures and tables should be numbered and cited consecutively in the text as figure 1, figure 2, table 1, table 2, etc. Include a caption for each figure and table, citing how it was constructed reference citations, data sources, etc. View in PDF Format The thesis statement is the center around which the rest of your paper revolves; it is a clear, concise statement of the position you will defend.
Components of a Strong Thesis Components of a Weak Thesis Argumentative, debatable Specific Original, goes beyond class discussion Can be supported with textual evidence Answers the prompt Clearly and concisely stated Summarizes, states a fact Broad, makes a generalization Repeats class discussion or other critics Unrelated to or contradicted by the text Unrelated or partial response to prompt Language is vague, wordy.
Descriptions of the moors Descriptions of Heathcliff, or moments when other characters talk about him Instances of political corruption from that led to stable government Instances of social inequality from Considering structure: Writing Center Kirner-Johnson Study What You Love. Campus Life Expand Navigation. Be Who You Are. After Hamilton Expand Navigation. Argumentative, debatable Specific Original, goes beyond class discussion Can be supported with textual evidence Answers the prompt Clearly and concisely stated.
Summarizes, states a fact Broad, makes a generalization Repeats class discussion or other critics Unrelated to or contradicted by the text Unrelated or partial response to prompt Language is vague, wordy. Because, so, as But, however, yet, although, despite When, where Unless, except Before, once, until. Specifies your reasoning Introduces nuance Confines idea to specific time or place Introduces an exception to your idea Specifies order in which things occur.
What types of information should you include in your introduction? Move 1 establish your territory say what the topic is about Move 2 establish a niche show why there needs to be further research on your topic Move 3 introduce the current research make hypotheses; state the research questions Each Move has a number of stages.
Give background about the topic P-type layers are commonly used in solar cells as they offer a wide range of applications such as a back surface field… 4. Currently in the PV industry aluminium-silicon alloying using screen-printed aluminium and belt furnace firing is the prevalent method of forming p-type layers because it is relatively easy and also forms the rear electrical contact… 5.
The use of aluminium as p-type dopant has two major disadvantages, however… 6. Identify importance of proposed research …Given the limitations associated with using Al to form p-type diffusion, boron as a dopant for diffused layers is therefore more suitable for high-efficiency silicon solar cells… 8.
The goal of this thesis is to evaluate boron nitride BN as a potential replacement for liquid-source diffusion presently being used for p-type diffusions in the high-efficiency buried contact solar cells under development at UNSW… Outline order of information in the thesis …This thesis is divided into five chapters: Stage Sample sentence extracts complete introduction is 11 pages 1.
State the general topic Identify importance of proposed research …There is mounting evidence, however, that immediate treatment will result in successful eradication of HCV. Therefore studies of acute phase quasispecies will enhance the understanding of the early virological events of newly acquired HCV infection and ultimately the disease process itself. State the hypothesis The hypotheses for this study are that there exist suitable parameters to assess quasispecies complexity.
Furthermore, a rapid and simpler alternative method to cloning and sequencing can be developed to accurately describe the complexity of a given quasispecies population… 8.
State research aims 1. Define a set of parameters to analyse quasispecies complexity. Develop a simpler and rapid alternative to cloning and sequencing that would accurately assess complexity of quasispecies populations….
Now that you have read example 1 and 2, what are the differences? Exercise Read the following sample sentence extracts from Honours theses Introductions. The theory behind the Severe-Weather Criterion is sound, and has a lot of merit.
However, many of the new generation of high-speed monohulls are having trouble passing the criterion…??? In order to evaluate how the Severe-Weather Criterion is applied to high-speed monohulls, two vessels have been used as a case study…???
Its minimal property implies that the network must be a tree…??? Formally, the problem can be stated as follows: Additional points besides these N points can be added to the tree as extra vertices…??? The SMT is a very interesting problem both in theoretical computer science and many practical applications. Like other graph problems, it is fundamental to solving many common problems, such as communication network planning and VLSI circuit design. The following are some examples…??? This section describes the contents of the rest of the thesis…Section 2 provides a literature survey on Steiner trees, including a number of exact and heuristic algorithms developed…???
The effects of Fluoride on the reproduction of three native Australian plant Species School of Geography Stage 1 Sample sentence extracts the complete Introduction is 17 pages long Give some background p.
The effects of Fluoride on the reproduction of three native Australian plant Species School of Geography Stage 2 Sample sentence extracts Provide a review of the literature related to the topic p. Because of its extensive industrial use, hydrogen fluoride is probably the greatest single atmospheric fluoride contaminant and is generally considered to be the most important plant pathogenic fluoride WHO, ; Treshow, … However, fluorides can cause damage to sensitive plant species even at extremely low fluoride concentrations Hill, , accumulate in large amounts within the plant and cause disease if ingested by herbivores Weinstein, This analysis showed that for nine species, photosynthesis measurements indicated greater sensitivity than was obvious from visible assessment, and for seven species the converse applied.
This indicated that, while it may generally be true that physiological responses occur at lower doses than visible injury, this does not always appear to be the case.
I am picturing a thesis introduction that looks something like this: Introduction to the introduction: The first step will be a short version of the three moves, often in as little as three paragraphs, ending with some sort of transition to the next section where the full context will be provided.
Edit your introduction and thesis as you write. Because ideas develop, change, and grow as you work with them, keep returning to your introductory paragraph and thesis. Edit them as you write your essay. By the end of your paper, be certain that the content of your introduction and thesis statement matches the overall message of your essay.
Most thesis introductions include SOME (but not all) of the stages listed below. There are variations between different Schools and between different theses, depending on the purpose of the thesis. Stages in a thesis introduction. state the general topic and give some background;. The thesis statement is the center around which the rest of your paper revolves; it is a clear, concise statement of the position you will defend.
Thesis introduction is the first part of a thesis paper. Thesis introduction allows the readers to get the general idea of what your thesis is about. Thesis introduction acquaints the readers with the thesis paper topic, explaining the basic points of the thesis research and pointing the direction of your research. The introduction should be focused on the thesis question(s). All cited work should be directly relevent to the goals of the thesis. This is not a place to summarize everything you have ever read on a subject. Explain the scope of your work, what will and will not be included.