The term record album originated from the fact that 78 RPM Phonograph disc records were kept together in a book resembling a photo album. A music video also promo is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. Modern music videos were primarily made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. Music videos can accommodate all styles of filmmaking, including animation, live action films, documentaries, and non-narrative, abstract film.
Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol IP. It consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and governmental networks, which together carry various information and services, such as email, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web. Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: The World Wide Web is accessible through the Internet, along with many other services including e-mail, file sharing and others described below.
Toward the end of the 20th century, the advent of the World Wide Web marked the first era in which most individuals could have a means of exposure on a scale comparable to that of mass media. Anyone with a web site has the potential to address a global audience, although serving to high levels of web traffic is still relatively expensive.
It is possible that the rise of peer-to-peer technologies may have begun the process of making the cost of bandwidth manageable. Although a vast amount of information, imagery, and commentary i.
The invention of the Internet has also allowed breaking news stories to reach around the globe within minutes. This rapid growth of instantaneous, decentralized communication is often deemed likely to change mass media and its relationship to society. Many authors understand cross-media publishing to be the ability to publish in both print and on the web without manual conversion effort.
The Internet is quickly becoming the center of mass media. Everything is becoming accessible via the internet. For example, many workers listen to the radio through the Internet while sitting at their desk. Even the education system relies on the Internet.
Teachers can contact the entire class by sending one e-mail. They may have web pages on which students can get another copy of the class outline or assignments. Some classes have class blogs in which students are required to post weekly, with students graded on their contributions.
Blogging, too, has become a pervasive form of media. A blog is a website, usually maintained by an individual, with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or interactive media such as images or video.
Entries are commonly displayed in reverse chronological order, with most recent posts shown on top. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images and other graphics, and links to other blogs, web pages, and related media.
The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art artlog , photographs photoblog , sketchblog, videos vlog , music MP3 blog , audio podcasting are part of a wider network of social media.
Microblogging is another type of blogging which consists of blogs with very short posts. RSS is a format for syndicating news and the content of news-like sites, including major news sites like Wired, news-oriented community sites like Slashdot, and personal blogs.
It is a family of Web feed formats used to publish frequently updated content such as blog entries, news headlines, and podcasts. RSS makes it possible for people to keep up with web sites in an automated manner that can be piped into special programs or filtered displays. A podcast is a series of digital-media files which are distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and computers.
The term podcast, like broadcast, can refer either to the series of content itself or to the method by which it is syndicated; the latter is also called podcasting. The host or author of a podcast is often called a podcaster. Mobile phones were introduced in Japan in but became a mass media only in when the first downloadable ringing tones were introduced in Finland.
Soon most forms of media content were introduced on mobile phones, tablets and other portable devices, and today the total value of media consumed on mobile vastly exceeds that of internet content, and was worth over 31 billion dollars in source Informa.
The mobile media content includes over 8 billion dollars worth of mobile music ringing tones, ringback tones, truetones, MP3 files, karaoke, music videos, music streaming services etc. In Japan mobile phone books are so popular that five of the ten best-selling printed books were originally released as mobile phone books. Similar to the internet, mobile is also an interactive media, but has far wider reach, with 3. Like email on the internet, the top application on mobile is also a personal messaging service, but SMS text messaging is used by over 2.
Practically all internet services and applications exist or have similar cousins on mobile, from search to multiplayer games to virtual worlds to blogs. Mobile has several unique benefits which many mobile media pundits claim make mobile a more powerful media than either TV or the internet, starting with mobile being permanently carried and always connected.
Mobile has the best audience accuracy and is the only mass media with a built-in payment channel available to every user without any credit cards or PayPal accounts or even an age limit. Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, A book is a collection of sheets of paper, parchment or other material with a piece of text written on them, bound together along one edge within covers.
A book is also a literary work or a main division of such a work. A book produced in electronic format is known as an e-book. Magazines are typically published weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly, with a date on the cover that is in advance of the date it is actually published.
They are often printed in color on coated paper, and are bound with a soft cover. Magazines fall into two broad categories: In practice, magazines are a subset of periodicals, distinct from those periodicals produced by scientific, artistic, academic or special interest publishers which are subscription-only, more expensive, narrowly limited in circulation, and often have little or no advertising. Magazines can be classified as: General interest magazines e. A newspaper is a publication containing news and information and advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint.
It may be general or special interest, most often published daily or weekly. The first printed newspaper was published in , and the form has thrived even in the face of competition from technologies such as radio and television. Recent developments on the Internet are posing major threats to its business model, however. Many commercial advertisers use this form of mass media when advertising in sports stadiums.
Tobacco and alcohol manufacturers used billboards and other outdoor media extensively. However, in , the Master Settlement Agreement between the US and the tobacco industries prohibited the billboard advertising of cigarettes. In a Chicago-based study, Diana Hackbarth and her colleagues revealed how tobacco- and alcohol-based billboards were concentrated in poor neighbourhoods.
In other urban centers, alcohol and tobacco billboards were much more concentrated in African-American neighborhoods than in white neighborhoods. A panel in the Newseum in Washington, D. It can be used for various purposes: Advocacy, both for business and social concerns. This can include advertising, marketing, propaganda, public relations, and political communication. Entertainment, traditionally through performances of acting, music, sports, and TV shows along with light reading; since the late 20th century also through video and computer games.
Public service announcements and emergency alerts that can be used as political device to communicate propaganda to the public. Journalism is the discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying and presenting information regarding current events, trends, issues and people.
Those who practice journalism are known as journalists. Many news organizations claim proud traditions of holding government officials and institutions accountable to the public, while media critics have raised questions about holding the press itself accountable to the standards of professional journalism. Public relations is the art and science of managing communication between an organization and its key publics to build, manage and sustain its positive image. Corporations use marketing public relations to convey information about the products they manufacture or services they provide to potential customers to support their direct sales efforts.
Corporations also use public relations as a vehicle to reach legislators and other politicians, seeking favorable tax, regulatory, and other treatment, and they may use public relations to portray themselves as enlightened employers, in support of human-resources recruiting programs. Nonprofit organizations, including schools and universities, hospitals, and human and social service agencies, use public relations in support of awareness programs, fund-raising programs, staff recruiting, and to increase patronage of their services.
In some cases, authors may be their own publishers. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include websites, blogs, and the like.
As a business, publishing includes the development, marketing, production, and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works, software, other works dealing with information. Publication is also important as a legal concept; 1 as the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy, and; 2 as the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation; that is, the alleged libel must have been published.
A software publisher is a publishing company in the software industry between the developer and the distributor. In some companies, two or all three of these roles may be combined and indeed, may reside in a single person, especially in the case of shareware. Software publishers often license software from developers with specific limitations, such as a time limit or geographical region.
The terms of licensing vary enormously, and are typically secret. Developers may use publishers to reach larger or foreign markets, or to avoid focussing on marketing. Or publishers may use developers to create software to meet a market need that the publisher has identified.
Early wooden printing press, depicted in The history of mass media can be traced back to the days when dramas were performed in various ancient cultures. Movable clay type was invented in in China.
However, due to the slow spread of literacy to the masses in China, and the relatively high cost of paper there, the earliest printed mass-medium was probably European popular prints from about Although these were produced in huge numbers, very few early examples survive, and even most known to be printed before about have not survived.
This form of media started in Europe in the Middle Ages. He printed the first book on a printing press with movable type in The Gutenberg Bible, one of the books he published, was translated into many different languages and printed throughout the continent. The invention of the printing press in the late 15th century gave rise to some of the first forms of mass communication, by enabling the publication of books and newspapers on a scale much larger than was previously possible.
Newspapers developed from about , with the first example in English in ; but they took until the 19th century to reach a mass-audience directly. The first high-circulation newspapers arose in London in the early s, such as The Times, and were made possible by the invention of high-speed rotary steam printing presses, and railroads which allowed large-scale distribution over wide geographical areas. The increase in circulation, however, led to a decline in feedback and interactivity from the readership, making newspapers a more one-way medium.
In recent times, the Internet become the latest and most popular mass medium. Information has become readily available through websites, and easily accessible through search engines. By disseminating information of varied kinds in society, mass media create awareness, generate debate and spread knowledge.
All these are vital in the context of evolution of cultures and their preservation over time. In earliest times, when the mass media did not exist as they do now, there were various mediums, especially of oral communication that served the same kind of purpose.
But those mediums were restricted in approach and narrow in scope. Not so the mass media. When talking about the role of the mass media, it has to be borne in mind that the mass media do not operate in isolation. They operate in societies and for societies; and all societies have their own cultures or, increasingly in modern times, are multicultural, with a variety of cultures, ethnicities and trends.
So the mass media that are evolving and their functioning are much more complex today than ever before. The mass media are capable of facilitating short-term, intermediate-term, and long-term effects on audiences. Short- term objectives include exposing audiences to ideas and concepts; creating awareness and knowledge; altering outdated or incorrect knowledge; and enhancing audience recall of certain advertisements or announcements, promotions, or programmes.
Intermediate-term objectives include all of the above, as well as changes in attitudes, behaviours, and perceptions of social norms. Finally, long-term objectives incorporate all of the aforementioned tasks, in addition to focused restructuring of perceived social norms, and maintenance of behaviour change.
Evidence of achieving these three tiers of objectives is useful in evaluating the effectiveness of mass media.
Introduction: Present age is called the age of information. And mass media are the powerful and the most effective instruments of spreading or sharing information. With the advancement of digital technology, mass media have become a powerful. And it is the most influential source of various news, views, ideas and opinion.
The mass media are diversified media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication. The technologies through which this communication takes place varies.
Essay on Mass Media Article shared by All the different tools that are used to assist the distribution and circulation of information and entertainment to the public come under the umbrella of mass media. Essay on Effect of Mass Media on Youth Words | 4 Pages. MASS MEDIA’S EFFECT ON YOUTH Over the years, technology has progressed from being merely a form of practical functions to forms of entertainment, such as computer and video games.
Essay Youth Violence and the Mass Media. Introduction The problem I am researching is the desensitizing of America's youth through violence in the mass media, specifically television and video games. Mass Media's Impact on Teens - The Mass Media according to the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopaedia is defined as the primary means by which information and entertainment are delivered to the public.