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❶It is unclear how Socrates earned a living.

Aristotle & Realism

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The final cause tends to be the same as the formal cause, and both of these can be assumed by the efficient cause. Of the four, it is the formal and final which is the most important, and which most truly gives the explanation of an object. The final end of a thing is realized in the full perfection of the object itself, not in our conception of it. Final cause is thus internal to the nature of the object itself, and not something we subjectively impose on it.

God to Aristotle is the first of all substances, the necessary first source of movement who is himself unmoved. God is a being with everlasting life, and perfect blessedness, engaged in never-ending contemplation. Epistemology are theories of or the study of the nature and grounds for knowledge with reference to its limits and validity Wheelwright, Aristotle accepts the idea of universal, knowable Truth.

He believes that, since both ideas and things are real, knowledge can be attained by both reason and sense experience - actually reason applied to sense experience. Science and philosophy are both legitimate ways of knowing, but philosophy is superior.

Axiology is the science of value. The word "axiology", derived from two Greek roots "axios" worth or value and "logos" logic or theory , means the theory of value Adler, The development of the science makes possible the objective measurement of value as accurately as a thermometer measures temperature. Aristotle is philosophically an absolutist.

Certain values, like rationality, apply universally. In day to day decision-making, his "Golden Mean" concept seems relativistic Founders, Important concepts include intrinsic and extrinsic values.

In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle established his ideals of moderation, balance, and harmony as the core of his axiological system or value theory Owens, Unlike Plato whose philosophy was based on abstraction, Aristotle's methods were based on empirical observation and research, thus the basis for realism. Similar to Plato's forms, Aristotle believed in essence, which refers to the attributes necessary for an object to be what it is.

As mentioned earlier, this paper summarizes Aristotle's theories in metaphysics, epistemology, and axiology, and does not discuss his other philosophies. To really understand Aristotle's philosophy, one has to read all of his theories and beliefs. There is no fine line between his different theories, and attempting to separate them into sections, or to summarize them in a four page paper, strips them of their true global perspective in relation to his other theories.

However, regardless of the latter fact, Aristotle's philosophies still astound scholars and people of all walks of life today, two thousand three hundred and twenty two years later. The collected Papers of Joseph Owens. State University of New York. The Odyssey Press, Inc. How would you rate this essay? Help other users to find the good and worthy free term papers and trash the bad ones.

Socrates lived during the time of the transition from the height of the Athenian Empire to its decline after its defeat by Sparta and its allies in the Peloponnesian War. At a time when Athens was seeking to stabilize and recover from its humiliating defeat, the Athenian public court was induced by three leading public figures to try Socrates for impiety and for corrupting the youth of Athens.

This was a time in culture when the Greeks thought of gods and goddesses as being associated with protecting particular cities. Athens, for instance, is named after its protecting goddess Athena. The defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War was interpreted as Athena judging the city for not being pious. Enter Socrates, who was perceived as questioning the gods, and in light of the recent war, it was all too easy to ascribe defeat to impiety rather than incompetence. The last thing Athens needed was more punishment from Athena for one man inciting its citizens to question her or the other gods.

In the Apology, Socrates insists that this is a false charge. According to the version of his defense speech presented in Plato's Apology, Socrates' life as the "gadfly" of Athens began when his friend Chaerephon asked the oracle at Delphi if anyone was wiser than Socrates; the Oracle responded negatively.

Socrates, interpreting this as a riddle, set out to find men who were wiser than he was. He questioned the men of Athens about their knowledge of good, beauty, and virtue.

Finding that they knew nothing and yet believing themselves to know much, Socrates came to the conclusion that he was wise only in so far as he knew that he knew nothing. Socrates' superior intellect made the prominent Athenians he publicly questioned look foolish, turning them against him and leading to accusations of wrongdoing. He was nevertheless found guilty as charged, and sentenced to death by drinking a cup of hemlock.

Socrates turned down the pleas of his disciples to attempt an escape from prison, drinking the hemlock and dying in the company of his friends. History of Western Philosophy, Misc Philosophy of the Americas 9, Philosophical Traditions, Miscellaneous 2, Philosophy, Misc 3, Philosophy, Introductions and Anthologies Philosophy, General Works 1, Other Academic Areas 59, Natural Sciences 4, Arts and Humanities 24, Other Academic Areas, Misc Visit the site to find out more!

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Aristotle would "do his research, reflect and digest his findings, then transmit his discoveries to his students in his lectures" (p. 42). Even though Aristotle was a student of Plato, Aristotle takes a different approach to the world of ideas than Plato did.

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- Aristotle's Political Virtues ABSTRACT: This paper argues that Aristotle conceives happiness not primarily as an exercise of virtue in private or with friends, but as the exercise of virtue in governing an ideal state.

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Aristotle and Friendship Research Papers on Aristotle's View of friendship is a topic of philosophy research papers. Custom written research papers on Aristotle and friendship. Aristotle and Happiness - It is the purpose of this research paper to discuss the notion of happiness as it appears in Aristotle's work. Aristotle died soon after his retirement from Athens, and his successor, both as the head of the Lyceum and as the heir to his papers, was Theophrastus, his longtime student, collaborator, and colleague.

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Aristotle essays Aristotle was a Greek Philosopher and a very educated man. He was a pupil of Plato's and was the founder of the Lyceum. His view on all subjects was teleological. He recognized purposes apart from and greater then the will of the individual human being. He gained much of. Aristotle Research Paper Aristotle is a famous Greek philosopher. Given the name “The Philosopher,” his ideas were of great importance to Greece during his lifetime.