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Sociology: Terms and Definitions

John Scott and Gordon Marshall

❶Formal organization that people join with a specific goal in mind. Prescribed ways of behaving that have sanctions attached to them example:


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Glossary of Terms in Sociology

Translation of sociology Nglish: Translation of sociology for Spanish speakers Britannica English: Translation of sociology for Arabic speakers Britannica. Encyclopedia article about sociology. What made you want to look up sociology? Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. You might've seen this one before.

Paraphrasing in a cut-and-paste world. Some of our favourite British words. The story of an imaginary word that managed to sneak past our editors and enter the dictionary. How we chose 'feminism'. How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. The awkward case of 'his or her'.

Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something along the way. Build a city of skyscrapers—one synonym at a time. Explore the year a word first appeared. Definition of sociology 1: See sociology defined for English-language learners See sociology defined for kids. Recent Examples of sociology from the Web Alicia Walker, an assistant professor of sociology at the Missouri State University, is asking people to send in pictures of their penises for a scientific study, according to The Springfield News-Leader.

The place apart from the audience where preparations are made to present a self. Ideas or statements about something we know or experience subjectively. Theoretical framework which asserts that there are cultural differences that women across the globe experience and seeks to get more women of color involved in writing about their experiences with gender inequality.

Prejudice and discrimination based on social class; the idea that certain classes of people are superior. A formal organization that uses force to create a strict environment of rules and regulations. The language, feeling rules, morals, values, beliefs, and scripts of a group or society. Occurs when a material object, or commodity, is treated with an almost religious devotion or as if it has special powers; Marxist concept referring to social relations in complex capitalist societies.

Sees the unequal distribution of scarce resources as the most important social fact. Wealthy nations that have dominant capitalist economies and which control and exploit poorer nations. True manhood depended on how well a male provided for family; true womanhood depended on how well a woman performed duties of wife, mother, and homemaker. Cultural practices found in every society, which meet the same human needs. Symbolic meaning systems that are passed down from generation to generation; culture forms the basis of all human interaction and action.

A way of life characterized by mass consumption; values, beliefs, norms revolve around consumption patterns where individuals are defined by what they own. The idea that global poverty is caused by the global dominance of wealthy nations who, through colonization and neocolonialism, have caused poor nations to be underdeveloped. Behavior that is defined by society as outside of what is generally expected. The actual practice of treating people differently based on their group membership or social category.

Specialization in work; the breakdown of jobs or tasks into specialized roles for workers; the number of specialized tasks increases with industrialization and modernization. A method of examining social interaction as if the participants are actors performing on a stage. Consequences that are seen to interfere with the needs and values of society, so we could say that some of the dysfunctions of prostitution are the spread of venereal disease and infidelity. An idea that values the shortest distance between means and ends; the least cost for the most benefit generally understood in economic terms.

The belief that all that exists can be observed through one or more of our five senses. The idea that when change occurs in one part of society, it causes other social institutions to adapt and change as well. An analysis of the everyday norms often taken for granted by individuals; involves breaking everyday norms in order to understand their significance.

Roles that involve taking care of personal relationships; usually taught to women; nurturing, emotionally attentive, passive, etc. Parts of different identities that we get attached to and feel that we must defend. The organization of marriage and blood ties that function to regularize sex and mating, providing for biological and social support, socialization of the young, and initial placement of young in social structures.

Tends to occur when the group overregulates the behaviors of individuals. The increasing number of women and children falling below the poverty line. Our entire face that we present to others; the method through which we cue others to the self and identity that we claim. The legal system negotiates relationships between social actors; it integrates different social actors. The extract raw resources from the environment, convert them into usable goods, and transport those goods and services to the society.

The social identity that is socially constructed around biological sex. A linguistic style that reflects the differences between how men and women communicate. All of the roles in society that are not represented by our significant others but play an important role in socialization and the internalization of society. The social structure that prevents women from advancing past a certain level in corporations and government; an effect of institutionalized sexism.

The set of structures that function to explicitly direct the activities of the system in animals, the mind; in society, government [also called polity]. Condition that occurs when poor decisions are made on behalf of an organization despite opposition. Beliefs, values, and attitudes that tend to support the status quo or social movements designed to change it. The amount of money one makes, generally measured on a yearly basis. Differential treatment that is so embedded in the everyday workings of social life that it is not easily recognized as discrimination and does not require conscious prejudice or overt discrimination example: Roles that involve performance tasks; usually are taught to boys; goal oriented, leadership, decision making, disciplinarian, unemotional, etc.

A form of interaction where individuals perform acts to show reverence to one another which involves a mutually shared meaning. The argument that once a bureaucracy is in place it is impossible to remove; the irrationalities of bureaucracy: Argues that the deviant labels given to people are a major cause of deviant behavior and identity.

The set of structures that serve to replicate patterns in a system with the least possible effort in the body, the central nervous system; in society, religion and education. Stories that provide a moral basis for human behavior stories that make it okay to do what we do.

Theoretical framework that says that the cause of gender inequality is gender socialization and seeks to bring about equality through legal reform. Seeing our self through the evaluations of others; we experience pride or shame as a result of the evaluations of others; the way our self esteem is formed.

Factories located along the Mexican-U. The social position through which an individual sees their entire life; it rules their interpretation of everything that happens to them. A system of stratification where the majority of economic activities rely on the system of slavery.

Suggests that modern societies are increasingly standardized, predictable, uniform, and bland. A society that has a weak collective consciousness but strong interdependency among the social units. Defining behavior as the result of a medical condition allowing for medical intervention and treatment; a means of social control as when homosexuality was defined as an illness. Subordinate women by segregating them from the rest of society when they have their cycle. An historical era in which urbanization and industrialization play key roles.

Where nations are controlled economically rather than politically or militarily. Formal organization that individuals join in order to promote an important social cause. Prescribed ways of behaving that have sanctions attached to them example: Originated in the American South and was eventually adopted by the entire nation. Culture or way of life where norms, values, and beliefs are in opposition to mainstream culture; in many oppositional cultures, acts of deviance are rewarded.

A system of stratification where men are given more power and prestige than women. Low income nations that are dependent on wealthier nations for foreign aid and investment. Consistent patterns of behavior that a person or individual exhibits. An historical period in which mass media and advertising play key roles.

The ability of one actor to influence the behavior of another in a social organization. Groups of ruling people who tend to have power in different kinds of institutional spheres. Emphasis in scientific management that reduced the amount of worker innovation and pressed workers to perform the same steps in the same way. Positive or negative cultural attitude that is directed toward members of a group or social category; combines beliefs and value judgments with positive or negative emotions.

In labeling theory, deviant behavior that is not noticed and labeled as deviant; most of us exhibit primary deviance. Groups that tend to be small in number, last long periods of time, be non-goal directed, and tend to create intimate self-revealing social relations. Inheritance ritual where property of the estate is passed down to the oldest male in the family. An ideology that justifies wealth and poverty.

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Symbolic interactionist perspective - A sociological framework that views society as a product of the everyday social interactions of individuals.

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Free sociology dictionary defining key sociological terms, concepts & vocabulary with examples, sample sentences, audio pronunciation & related definitions.

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In political sociology, the view that society is composed of competing interest groups, with power diffused among them. Policy research Research designed to assess alternative possibilities for public or social action, in terms of their costs and/or consequences. Basic Concepts & Terms of Sociology. The basic premise of sociology is that human behavior is largely shaped by the groups to which people belong and by the social interaction that takes place within those groups. The main focus of sociology is the group not the individual.

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Sociology definition is - the science of society, social institutions, and social relationships; specifically: the systematic study of the development, structure, interaction, and collective behavior of organized groups of human beings. Term Definition Module Academic Discipline Specific ways of studying the world. 1 Adaptation The set of structures that serve to extract from the environment the things that the organism or society needs to survive (in animals: the digestive system; in society: the economy) 4 Agents of Socialization Those parts of society that are charged.