This means that when you have completed the chapters that form the main body of your dissertation you can return to the proposal and revise it as much as you need, to form the introduction.
It is highly advisable to draft a plan of the dissertation. There is a lot in common between different dissertations regarding the structure and although you do not need to stick slavishly to a standard plan, such a plan is very helpful as a template to impose some order on what may seem an unmanageable task. Here is an indicative structure that might help you with your initial plan. The field of study, the research question, the hypothesis if any or, more generally, the research question that is to be investigated.
It should also include a summary of the contents and main arguments in the dissertation. Usually, this comes immediately after the introductory chapter. This may be more than one chapter, but should certainly be written in sections. This should include previous work done on the field of study and anything that you consider to be relevant to the hypothesis or research question and to its investigation.
It will include a large number of references to the literature in your chosen area. You should consider the benefits of your chosen method as well as identifying any disadvantages and how you overcame them.
Ethical issues and the ways in which you dealt with them should be noted. This section should also discuss any variations from the original fieldwork plan, and should conclude with a reflection on the experience of doing fieldwork.
You may also wish to include an evaluation of any difficulties you encountered in collecting and analysing data, together with an assessment of how this affected your plan of research.
You should NOT introduce any new literature at this stage. An overall assessment of what you found out, how successful you were and suggestions for future research.
Once you have produced the proposal and discussed it with your supervisor, you may want to write the first draft of a chapter of the dissertation.
When you hand in this draft, you should arrange a tutorial to receive your supervisor's verbal or written comments and suggestions on how it may be improved. You may, for example, produce a draft introduction setting out the issue, together with a literature review which covers what, if any, treatment of the topic has gone beforehand.
You may also wish to draft those sections of the methodology chapter that cover the methods that you wish to use, together with a justification for why you think those methods are best.
When you have received your supervisor's comments on the draft of any chapter, you should revise that particular chapter immediately. Prompt revision is easier than letting things drift, and you should do it while the advice of your supervisor is fresh in your mind. This will also avoid building up a backlog of work that needs to be revised, which can be discouraging.
Having the material on a computer disk will enable you to do revisions efficiently and with a minimum of fuss.
Be sure to back up all your work on a floppy disk, CD, or memory stick. Depending on the credit rating of the dissertation, the amount of time you devote to it should be equivalent to the time you would devote to a taught course with the same credit rating; that is, seminar and lecture time plus time for private study. In our research we found that students often did not think about the credit rating of their dissertation and actually spent more time working on it than they should have!
They saw it as such an important part of their degree that they wanted to put more into it:. It [the dissertation] took up more of my time Once you get into it, you have to out in the effort. All the modules in the final year are important. You will find that once the final year begins, the weeks go by very quickly, and you will need to organise your time well from the start so that the ongoing preparation of your dissertation continues alongside work for the taught units you are studying.
Once you have a workable plan it is much easier to plan the work in sequence and to set yourself targets for the completion of the separate parts see the section on Getting started with the Dissertation.
Allow plenty of time for final revisions after your tutor has seen a complete draft. If you are taking a dissertation over two semesters, you should aim to spend the equivalent of one full half-day per week working on your dissertation during each semester of your final year if it is worth 20 credits - nearer twice that amount of time if it is a credit dissertation. You will decide with your supervisor precisely when to produce drafts, but if you are taking a dissertation module over one academic year then by the end of the first semester you would normally expect to produce a proposal or abstract and a first draft of one or two chapters.
You would then produce the drafts of the remaining chapters and complete the process of revision and writing-up during the second semester. In the second semester, when drafting the remaining main chapters of the dissertation, you will follow the practice established in the first semester of submitting the drafts to your supervisor for comments and advice.
You should take advantage of the period between the first semester and the start of the second semester to write a draft of a chapter, and you should plan to have produced first drafts of all the main chapters by at least four weeks before the submission date also allowing for any vacation periods when staff may not be available.
If, however, you are taking the dissertation module over one semester, you will need to adjust this time frame accordingly. The introduction to your dissertation should explain to the reader what you are going to investigate. It should describe the dissertation's topic and scope.
You should explain your reasons for investigating your chosen topic by referring to the appropriate literature. Having completed the work on the main substance of your dissertation, you should have a much clearer idea of its nature and scope than you did when you wrote your preliminary abstract or proposal.
It is important, however, to write the introduction as though you are setting out on a process of investigation. You need to emphasise the exploratory nature of your work.
You should also avoid anticipating the discoveries and conclusions that you have made in the course of your investigations. So, you might simply say that you have identified certain common features in the relevant literature, or a particular issue that it deals with, and that your dissertation will examine the literature closely in order to demonstrate the relationships between treatments of the issue in the sample texts.
When you have completed the main body of the work and your tutor has commented on your complete draft, you may well wish to revisit the introduction to take into account your findings and your tutor's comments on their significance. Your dissertation is a substantial piece of written work that ideally should conform to a number of academic conventions.
One of the most important of these academic conventions is the literature review. In short, the literature review is a discussion or 'review' of secondary literature that is of general and central relevance to the particular area under investigation. Often students ask how long a literature review should be. This is a difficult question given that the total length of your dissertation might be anything from five to twelve thousand words.
Obviously your supervisor may be able to give some indication of the approximate length of your literature review. However, don't become pre-occupied with word length, the main thing is that your literature review should capture the general and specific aspects of the literature of your subject. The literature review is an important device in your dissertation as it performs a number of related functions:.
Writing a literature review is not as simple as at first it may seem. What follows is a step by step guide on how to go about conducting and presenting your literature review. The first stage of your literature review is to collect a list of literature that is relevant to your study. Once you have a list of references for your dissertation, you now have to access and read this material. This is time consuming because you will be reading a large amount of material.
Once you start you might find that some literature is of little relevance to your study. This is something that many researchers and dissertation students go through and is often a necessary part of the process. It is better to read something that is not central to your dissertation than miss something that might be an important and relevant contribution to the field.
Make notes about the central themes and arguments of the book, chapter or article. These notes can then be incorporated into the finished version of your literature review. Try and get a sense of the theoretical perspective of the author, this will be of use when you organise and present your literature review. Also, emphasise the way in which the piece of literature you are reading seeks to set itself apart from other literature.
Importantly, start to think critically about the piece you are reading; ask: How is it different from the way others have dealt with this issue? This critical component is very important as it demonstrates that you are engaging with relevant literature in an appropriate manner and that you can discriminate between different perspectives and approaches that exist within your chosen field.
Once you have generated a large number of notes around your reading you might start to feel overwhelmed by the literature. In terms of the organisation and presentation of your literature review, it is worth dividing your review into two main areas: You will also need to further divide the literature into specific areas relevant to your study for e.
What follows are some general guidelines on how you might do this. It will be clear that some of the reading you have done is of more relevance than others.
It is important, however, that you do not discard the less relevant work; instead this can form the broad background of your discussion of the more relevant literature within your field. For example you may mention different authors that have dealt with a question related to your field but may not be central to it.
Highlight these in broad terms, state how these works have impacted on your particular area. You need not go into great detail about these more general works, but by highlighting these works you are demonstrating your awareness of the scope and limits of your study and how it touches upon other areas of study.
Once you have discussed the range of literature that is only of general interest to your study, you can then go into more detail on the literature that more sharply focuses on the questions that are of interest to you. Devote more detail to these particular works as they are more important to your topic. Indeed they may highlight the gap in the literature that exists that you seek to fill; they may provide the basis on which you seek to build, or they might be works which require some critique from your particular perspective.
When you have divided your literature review into general works and works of central importance, you should also further divide the literature into sub-categories. By further dividing your literature in this way, you are adding more organisation into your literature review by providing specific sub-categories of relevant literature.
For example in the general works section of your literature review, you might want one sub-heading on the main theoretical debates, one on empirical studies and maybe one on policy. With reference to the more central literature, you could organise this more important reading in a similar way.
For example, if relevant, you could have a section on competing theoretical perspectives; a section on the main findings of important empirical studies; a section on policy implementation and its impacts. See the table below. Detailed analysis of theoretical and conceptual debates Discussion of main findings of important empirical studies and their critiques Focused analysis of policy implementation. If appropriate you might also want to divide your sub-headings further.
One final note on the more central literature is that this more focused analysis can also serve to bring your empirical or theoretical work into sharper focus.
In this sense you are prefacing your work and how it relates to other academic studies by your discussion of it in your literature review. One thing to remember however is that just because you talk about an author's work in your literature review, doesn't mean you never mention it again in your dissertation.
In the discussion section of your study you will necessarily relate your findings to those central studies that you have highlighted in your literature review. When you have written your literature review, this is not the end of the process. Throughout your dissertation process, you will come across literature that is of relevance to your area of study, do not ignore this material, you can always add more literature to your review as you come across it.
Finally, make sure that you keep a record of all your references, even the ones that have been of little use. This will help you organise your bibliography and reference list. You may even need to go back and look over something that you looked at earlier in your studies that may have more relevance than you first thought. This must clearly identify the epistemological i. It should include good coverage of the process of the fieldwork and indicate how the analysis was undertaken.
As well as covering the ethical issues it should also contain an element of reflection on the research process. Many students confuse findings with discussion and it is important to keep them separate.
The findings are often presented in charts and tables even from qualitative data. Verbatim references to participants' comments are particularly helpful. It is important to ensure that findings are truly analysed, rather than described.
Finding ways of cross relating the findings is therefore important. Traditionally, the discussion links findings to the literature presented in the literature review. There are arguments for extending the coverage of literature in this section but only in exceptional circumstances.
The discussion should be precisely that: The main chapters of your dissertation will have focused on particular topics or issues. For example, each chapter may have focused discussion on a particular text. Alternatively, you may have structured your work so that each chapter is devoted to discussion of a particular aspect of your overall topic.
The conclusion offers the opportunity to review your work as a whole, to identify the points of comparison and contrast the various texts you have examined, and to show that, in the process of your study, you have developed a more precise, critical understanding of the way they deal with your topic. This is also an appropriate place for you to point to the limitations of small-scale research of this kind and to indicate possible avenues for researchers to address the issues in the future.
The process of preparing your dissertation for submission begins with a careful final drafting of all your chapters and sections. Here you have the opportunity:. You need to check that your quotations from and references to both primary and secondary texts are clearly and consistently identified according to the conventions of the HARVARD referencing systems or whatever system your department requires.
There is more about this in the section on Plagiarism. You will check that your bibliography is properly presented and contains all sources cited throughout your work. The background of your research should include major concepts related to your dissertation topic and title.
Introduction to a dissertation should not talk much about other researches and studies that have been conducted on the same or similar topic as this will be discussed in the literature review section. Moreover, this section should also not include research design and data collection method s. All about research strategy should be covered in the methodology section Student. Background to the research only helps to build up your research and talk about the topic and title in general.
For instance, if your research is based on job satisfaction measures of a specific country, or if your dissertation intends to compare two companies or systems, this section should only talk generally about job satisfaction and the impact it has. This is the second part of your introduction, and this is where you explain your title. If your dissertation is based on a specific company, you need to explain why that industry and company was chosen.
Regardless of the research topic you choose, explain thoroughly in this section as to why this research is being conducted and what benefit will it serve. Furthermore, this section will also talk about the importance of your research. This should be convincing so that our supervisor and other readers are persuaded that the concept should be researched and that there is no room for any other dissertation title to be selected.
This is one of the most essential aspects of how to write the introduction of a dissertation. Doing so will help your readers understand what you intend to do in this research, as well as, what they should expect from this study. Presenting the research problem of your dissertation holds a lot of importance. This research problem is the crux of your dissertation i. If your dissertation is based on measuring job satisfaction of a specific organization, your research problem should talk about the problem that the company currently faces and how your research will help the company to solve their problem.
If your dissertation is not based on any specific organization, you can explain the common issues that companies face when they do not consider job satisfaction and how your research will help them realize its importance. Now comes the main aspect of your introduction, research question.
Your research question should be based on your research problem, and also your dissertation title Ncl. Combining these two aspects together will help you formulate a perfect research question for your dissertation. Your research question is the question that your research will answer and around which your whole dissertation will revolve.
Research question should be specific, concise and to the point. You will come back to your research question again when concluding your dissertation. In some cases, you might have to formulate a hypothesis in place of research question.
Hypothesis is a simple statement, which you prove with your results, discussion and analysis. Results of your dissertation could be in favor of this dissertation or against it. Now come research aims and objectives. Aims and objectives are broad statements of desired results of your dissertation. They reflect the expectations of the topic and research, and also address the long-term project outcomes.
These statements should use the concepts accurately, must be focused, should be able to convey your research intentions, and also serve as steps that communicate how your research question will be answered Libguides. Based on your topic, research question or hypothesis, you should formulate your aims and objectives.
These are simple statements and are an extension of your research question. You could ask your supervisor to provide you with some thesis introduction examples to help you understand better how aims and objectives are formulated. Always make sure that your research aims and objectives are concise, brief and to the point. You have to make sense in only a few statements, thus make us of them very wisely. Once you reach the conclusion of your dissertation, you will have to revert back in order to address whether your research aims and objectives have been met or not.
Sep 08, · The introduction is the first chapter of your dissertation and thus is the starting point of your dissertation. You describe the topic of your dissertation, formulate the problem statement and write an overview of your dissertation/5().
Your dissertation's introduction should set the scene and explain why you studied this area and what you hoped to find. This is often the last section to write.
With so much to do, students usually get off track when writing introduction of their dissertation. Find out how here you can draft a first class introduction. In this dissertation introduction example index you will find a number of dissertation introduction examples in a range of subjects.
A dissertation introduction is the first thing that a reader sees when reading your dissertation. It basically creates the first impression of your dissertation, and this first impression will last till the end of your dissertation or thesis. Writing your Dissertation Introduction - Amazing tips & guidance on writing your Dissertation Introduction to submit it into College University.