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Types of Descriptive Research Methods

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What Is the Difference Between Descriptive Research and Correlational Research?

True experiments , whilst giving analyzable data, often adversely influence the normal behavior of the subject. Descriptive research is often used as a pre-cursor to quantitative research designs, the general overview giving some valuable pointers as to what variables are worth testing quantitatively.

Quantitative experiments are often expensive and time-consuming so it is often good sense to get an idea of what hypotheses are worth testing.

Because there are no variables manipulated , there is no way to statistically analyze the results. In addition, the results of observational studies are not repeatable , and so there can be no replication of the experiment and reviewing of the results. Descriptive research design is a valid method for researching specific subjects and as a precursor to more quantitative studies.

Whilst there are some valid concerns about the statistical validity , as long as the limitations are understood by the researcher, this type of study is an invaluable scientific tool. Whilst the results are always open to question and to different interpretations, there is no doubt that they are preferable to performing no research at all.

Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Martyn Shuttleworth Sep 26, Retrieved Sep 10, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.

You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution. Case Study Research Design. The other problem is the person presenting the case might be biased leading to selectively choosing facts to support a certain conclusion. Another one of the types of descriptive research methods is utilizing observation to understand the behavior and characteristics of demographics.

As an example, market researchers use passive and active observational research and ethnography to understand the behavior of consumers in a certain area. Ethnographers spend time interacting with research participants and gleaning data on lifestyle, values, culture influence and consumer purchases. Passive observation involves watching what customers purchase where researchers observe how customers interact with a product in active observation before asking questions.

Observational research involves the use of sampling to reach a research conclusion. Survey research is one of the most commonly used descriptive research methods in a social sciences research study.

Researchers randomly selects respondents from a population to answer a standardized questionnaire or conduct a face-to-face interview or telephone interview to collect data to assess people's behavior, beliefs and attitudes. In these types of descriptive research methods, positives can include cost effective methods, easy administration and the ability to sample a wide range of people.

On the negative side, face-to-face surveys can have issues with ambiguity in survey responses and survey participants being unwilling or too uncomfortable to give accurate or honest answers to the questions. This type of descriptive research study as a method uses existing data or records to answer a research question. Hence, descriptive research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, descriptive research cannot be used as the basis of a causal relationship , where one variable affects another.

In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. The description is used for frequencies , averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation.

Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are. In addition, the conceptualizing of descriptive research categorization or taxonomy precedes the hypotheses of explanatory research.

Descriptive research is also known as Statistical Research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.

Descriptive research is mainly done when a researcher wants to gain a better understanding of a topic. That is, analysis of the past as opposed to the future.

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Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound -- they describe situations. They do not make accurate predictions, and they do not determine cause and effect. There are three main types of descriptive methods: observational methods, case-study methods and survey methods.

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Descriptive research is commonly used in social sciences to study characteristics or phenomenons. Also known as statistical research, researchers look into the frequency, average or other qualitative methods to understand a subject being studied. It involves case .

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Descriptive research is a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. More simply put, descriptive research is all about describing people who take part in the study. More simply put, descriptive research is all about describing people who take part in the study. types of descriptive research jeannifer b. villanueva mpmg 2. Descriptive-surveyThis type is suitable wherever the subjects vary among themselves and one is interested to know the extent to which different conditions and situations are obtained among these ct4uc3541.cf word SURVEY signifies the gathering of data regarding present conditions.

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Descriptive studies can last for a short period of time, such as a cross-sectional study. This type of study observes people in one interaction in a group setting. These studies can also be long-term, such as a longitudinal study. of Descriptive Research. The following module provides an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of using descriptive research. Learning Objectives: Describe the advantages and benefits of using descriptive research methods. Describe the disadvantages and limitations of using descriptive research methods.