Out of every women who are diagnosed with breast cancer only one man is which is why this paper will concentrate on the disease process in women. Please refer to the illustration above for help in understanding the structure of a normal breast. The female breast is primarily made up of lobules, ducts, and stroma.
Lobules are milk producing glands, ducts are the milk passages that connect the lobules to the nipple and stroma is fatty and connective tissue that surrounds the ducts, lobules, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels carry lymph, a clear fluid containing waste products and immune cells.
There are also lymph nodes along the lymphatic vessels; these nodes are bean-shaped collections of immune cells. Most lymphatic vessels of the breast connect to axillary lymph nodes which can be found in the armpit. According to NABCO cancer is a group of more than different diseases and occurs when cells become abnormal and are without control or order. The cells then continue to divide if when new ones are not needed.
During the change from a normal cell to a cancerous cell, however, the cells requires many different gene alterations. Eventually these altered genes form a tumor which may be benign non-cancerous or malignant cancerous. A benign tumor can damage local tissue but fortunately will not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant tumors on the other hand spread to other areas of the body damaging and destroying healthy tissue.
A gene that is commonly found in breast cancer patients which have a high incidence of familial causes is the BRCA gene. While comparing healthy and cancerous cells of women diagnosed with the disease his team noticed that a gene called DBC2 had been completely deleted in the cancerous cells of seven women.
This recent discovery may aid in the detection of the underlying causes of breast cancer. As stated earlier the gene which causes inherited breast cancer is better understood. BRCA is a tumor suppressor gene. This gene is normally programmed to slow down cell division or cause cells to die at the right time.
There are believed to be many risk factors of this disease, unfortunately, the reasons for the many of the risks are often unclear. The most validated reason for breast cancer is estradiol exposure.
For this reason, being a woman is the greatest risk factor of all. Women have many more breast cells which are constantly being exposed to growth hormones. White women are also higher risk than their black counterparts, though the reason for this is not known Apantaku, ACS, Due to estradiol, an early onset of menses or the late development of menopause puts a woman at greater risk because there are an increased number of menstrual cycles leading to extra estradiol production.
For this same reason, women whose cycles are shorter than 25 days; women who have used conventional animal estrogens or synthetic hormone for more than five years; and those women who used birth control before their first pregnancy, before 20, or for more than five years before 35 double and possibly triple the risk for developing breast cancer. Hereditary, dietary and lifestyle factors are also contributors to beast cancer risk. Women whose mothers had breast cancer are at twice the risk for developing this disease, generally the younger the mother is at the time of diagnosis the greater the risk.
If a sister has breast cancer or a brother has prostate the risk can increase even more. Diets high in fat are also linked to this illness; because more fat cells produce more estrogen, high fats promote early onset of menstrual cycle, and there are hydrogenated fats from trans-fatty acids found in margarine which are considered cacogenic. Increased alcohol consumption also promotes increased estrogen levels.
Lack of regular, physical exercise can also be a risk factor, because exercise directly decreases estradiol absorption and improves immune response.
Now that some of the risk factors are known, can breast cancer be prevented? While it is not possible to completely prevent the disease it is possible to reduce the risk with a hormone called Tamoxifen. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogen drug which is most often taken in pill form for approximately five years.
This hormone is not only used as a preventive treatment for development of cancer in those people who have not had it , but it is also used to prevent a second episode of the disease and to prevent further tumor development during the actual disease process. Unfortunately, this therapy does not come without side effects.
The use of this drug increases the risk for developing uterine carcinoma, a rare and potentially serious condition. Other side effects include weight gain, mood swings, hot flashes, blood clots and cataracts.
Because of these serious side effects it is important for a patient to weigh their options, but more often then not the benefits prevail. Symptoms found with breast cancer are masses, pain, erythema, nipple drainage, and enlarged lymph nodes. The most common complaint which causes women to seek medical attention is a breast mass. The etiology for fibroadenoma is unknown, but the pathogenesis is a clonal stromal component.
There is proliferation of both the ducts and the stroma, numerous fibroblasts of the stroma can be seen along with a pale eosinophilic cytoplasm. The typical duct epithelium often lines the glandular spaces which may lead to compression because of this fibrous proliferation. There are two types of breast pain, cyclic and non-cyclic. Non-cyclic pain however, is often only experienced in certain area of the breast. This pain may sometimes be caused by injury or trauma to the breast such as after a breast biopsy.
However, there still seems to be some evidence relating breast cancer to genetic factors. Both the breast and the glands that produce wax in ears belong to the same family of glands. Researchers found that individuals with ear glands that produce wet wax have a double risk with respect to breast cancer in contrast to those whose ear glands produce dry wax.
Another risk related factor to breast cancer is menstruation. Doctors have discovered that risks of breast cancer are very high for women who menstruate before the age of 12 or who reach menopause after the age of fifty. Women who do not get pregnant at all or who become pregnant after the age of thirty also face very high risks. Doctors today are becoming more convinced that diet and breast cancer could be connected in some strong relationship.
Most diets that are highly related to breast cancers include chemicals in hair dyes, high alcohol consumption, birth control pills and many others. Nevertheless, evidence in this respect has not been yet established. In fact, many of the research efforts conducted on these factors have shown contradicting results. Detecting breast cancer is both easy and difficult.
It can be easy because any previously unnoticed lump on the breast could be an indication of a breast cancer, even though it might not be so. However, a clear change in a wart or mole on the breast is usually considered a reflection of cancer growth in the breast.
All in all, the best way to detect breast cancer is to go through mammography, a process which many women go through several times during their lives Laino, online. Mustafa Maatouk, a surgeon who is specialized in treating breast cancer and who operates frequently at the American University of Beirut, most breast cancer cases can be detected in two ways.
The first is that women must regularly pay attention to any changes taking places in the warts or moles in their bodies, and secondly, regular inspection through mammography can be very helpful in detecting the disease early before it spreads into the rest of the body Maatouk, Personal Interview. Traditionally, cancers have been treated with a variety or a combination of methods. The most typical therapies are surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radioactive substances, or immunotherapy Laino, online.
With breast cancers, almost all cases can be treated, but only on the condition that they are discovered at an early stage, mainly through physical inspection or through mammography. In the past, women who underwent mastectomy suffered seriously because of the physical distortion of their bodies after the surgery.
Today, however, plastic surgery has developed in such a way that it has become part of the treatment. In many cases, women who undergo mastectomy suffer serious psychological traumas that reflect on their sexual lives.
In part, this is due to the fact that many people think that cancer is contagious when in fact it is not. Almost a century of dealing with cancers have passed. A hundred years ago, a woman with breast cancer was a dead woman.
Today, this is no longer the case. Thousands of women all over the world now have the chance to live a normal life after they receive a successful treatment. Yet, breast cancer remains one of the leading causes of death among women, and even if the death rates have been declining in the past few years, women at different ages should continuously test for breast cancer because detecting the disease at a very early stage can be very helpful and the treatment might not even be noticed.
Cancer Sourcebook for Women. Breast cancer research paper.
By theu | T+ September 24th, | Uncategorized | Comments Off on Breast cancer research paper Breat cancer research paper outline Thesis: Breast cancer, however, remains one of the major concerns in the medical field, mainly because it has many forms and happens to strike a large number of women.
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Research Paper On Breast Cancer Breast cancer, as the name says it, develops from breast cells and it is the most invasive type of cancer in females. It consists in two different forms of disease, depending on the place it develops. Research Paper on Breast Cancer - According to the American Cancer Society, Each year, more than , women are diagnosed with breast cancer; furthermore Twelve percent of all women will contract the disease, and % of them will die from breast cancer (American Cancer Society, ). There are risk factors that may lead to .
Example of a breast cancer research paper thesis Women who fail to conduct breast self-assessment indicate lack of awareness about the risk of developing breast cancer. Others do not undergo a regular check-up to determine if they are either at risk or not for developing breast cancer. Research Paper Breast Cancer Awareness Health Essay. Institute. Professor. Student. Introduction. Breast Cancer is that form of cancer which has started affecting hundreds and thousands of women around the world. Not a long time ago the term was not even familiar in masses like it has become now.